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红军由弱变强的关键因素
2020-01-08 01:23  www.sghunter.com

红军是中国土地革命战争时期,中国共产党领导的人民军队。没有红军就没有工农革命根据地,也就无法完成建立新中国的伟大事业。回首历史,红军能发挥如此作用的关键因素在于,一手抓武装斗争,一手紧抓政治教育。  1928年10月,在中共湘赣边界第二次代表大会的决议中,毛泽东指出,至于此刻的红军,也是由经过民主的政治训练和接受过工农群众影响的国民革命军中分化出来的。他还一针见血地揭示出军阀军队与红军的本质区别,那些毫未经过民主的政治训练、毫未接受过工农影响的军队,例如阎锡山、张作霖的军队,此时便决然不能分化出可以造成红军的成分来。  没有政治训练,没有政治教育,就没有真正的红军。1928年11月25日,毛泽东在写给党中央的《井冈山的斗争》报告中特别提出,经过政治教育,红军士兵都有了阶级觉悟,都有了承担革命斗争的常识,斗争再艰苦也不出怨言,同时也强调,因党的支部建在连上,负责督促士兵委员会进行政治训练、指导民运工作的党代表以及党代表制度不能废除,并且他还请求中央和省委派同志来充实党代表队伍,加强对红军的政治训练。  1929年12月在福建上杭县古田村召开的中国共产党红军第四军第九次代表大会,深入分析总结了南昌起义以来红军的建设经验,批判了各种错误思想,坚持以无产阶级思想来建设人民的军队,并针对当时红军中忙于打仗而政治教育缺乏的问题,明确指出“红军党内最迫切的问题,要算是教育的问题……因此,有计划地进行党内教育,纠正过去之无计划的听其自然的状态,是党的重要任务之一”。在大会决议案中明确提出“党内教育问题”,从意义、材料、方法上对在红军中开展干部、党员教育进行了系统阐述、部署,具有很强的操作性,体系也相当完善。  在开展政治教育的内容和方法上,结合当时实际,内容丰富,形式多样,如:识字的同志阅读党报、政治简报,组织编辑各种教育同志的小册子,开展政治教育训练班,有组织地分配看书。对不识字党员,读书报给他听,个别谈话,开展批评会、政治讨论会等等,同时也把党的小组会、支部大会和支部委、组联席会这“三会”作为党内教育的重要方式之一。  古田会议决议中还着重提出了“适当地分配党员参加实际工作”,将经过充分政治教育培养的党员充实到红军战斗部队的各个层面、岗位,这也是“党指挥枪”的一个贯彻落实。  党充分考虑到对红军中青年党员的政治教育,从组织架构上进行了设置。为计划对青年党员的教育,计划争取青年工农群众的方法,并指导青年工作会议,前委及纵委里各设立五人之青年工作委员会,支队委及支委则各设一个青年委员。  对红军中非党员骨干的政治教育也毫不放松,以“活动分子会议”“联席会议”的形式进行常态化教育。注重加强对红军普通士兵的政治训练。决议要求“很艺术地编制课本,作对士兵的训练材料”,是指要把政治分析及红军的任务与计划、三条纪律建设的理由、怎样做群众工作、革命故事、革命歌曲、识字运动等19个项目“很艺术”地结合实际,编辑成红军士兵喜闻乐见、容易理解接受的政治训练材料形式,以达到实际效果。士兵的训练方法有上政治课、早晚点名说话、集合讲话、个别谈话、游艺、改良待遇等,可谓详尽周到。  古田会议之后,政治建军的原则已经确立。1930年1月,针对之前“红旗到底打得多久”的疑问,以及红军中出现的怀疑和悲观情绪,毛泽东撰写了著名的《星星之火,可以燎原》。这篇通信,不仅进一步回答了中国的红色政权为什么能够存在和发展的问题,而且找到了中国革命在城市中被强大敌人所击败,无法以城市为中心取得全国性胜利的规律,提出了“以乡村为中心”实行“工农武装割据”的光辉思想。  为了充分教育红四军全体党员和全军干部,毛泽东决定把这封通信以公开形式印发全军学习,对全军进行政治教育,这对其后建立中央革命根据地发挥了重要的政治保障作用,从思想上解开了当时红军中出现的一些“心结”,也标志着毛泽东关于以农村包围城市,最后夺取全国胜利的革命理论至此基本形成。  政治教育对改造起义部队也发挥了巨大作用。1931年12月24日,发生了著名的宁都兵暴,国民党第26路军万多人举行了起义,随即被改编为红军第五军团,但由于这支部队是由上级将领组织兵变起义的,大部分起义官兵在奔往苏区的路上还不知实情,他们不了解起义的意义,不了解苏区的情况。当时部队的情况很复杂,军心不稳。紧急关头,红军军委下令,要以红军的精神来教育改造这支部队,毛泽东亲自部署,指示被派往红五军团做政治委员的肖劲光按照古田会议决议精神,建立党的领导,全面加强起义部队的政治思想教育。尽管改造红五军团困难重重,险情迭出,但经过两个多月的集中整编、改造和政治思想教育,红五军团成长为一支新型的可以信赖的人民军队,成为一支为革命作出巨大功勋的红色劲旅。  综合党史来看,红军时期形成的政治教育、政治学习的优良传统无论是其初创时期,还是在瑞金时期、长征路上、延安边区以及抗日战争、解放战争中,一直在党的历史上闪耀着灿烂光芒,是人民军队由弱变强的关键因素之一。  (摘自2017年第24期《群众》)

The Red Army was the people's army of the Communist Party of China during the Agrarian Revolutionary War. Without the Red Army, there would be no revolutionary base areas for workers and peasants, and the great cause of building a new China would not be accomplished. Looking back on history, the key factor for the Red Army to play such a role lies in grasping the armed struggle and the political education. In October 1928, in a resolution of the second congress of the Communist Party of China on the border between Hunan and Jiangxi, Mao Zedong pointed out that the Red Army at this time was also divided among the National Revolutionary Army, which had received democratic political training and the influence of the workers and peasants. He also pointed out the essential difference between the warlord army and the red army, and those who had not been trained in democracy and had not received the influence of workers and peasants, such as yan xishan and zhang zuolin, could not divide the elements that could cause the red army. Without political training, without political education, there would be no real Red Army. On November 25,1928, Mao Zedong wrote in his "Fight in Jinggangshan" report to the CPC Central Committee that, after political education, all the Red Army soldiers had class consciousness and common sense to bear the revolutionary struggle, and that the struggle was no more difficult than complaining. The Ninth Congress of the Fourth Army of the Communist Party of China, held in Gutian Village, Shanghang County, Fujian Province in December 1929, thoroughly analyzed and summed up the experience in the construction of the Red Army since the Nanchang uprising, criticized all kinds of erroneous ideas, insisted on using proletarian ideas to build the people's army, and pointed out that "the most urgent issue within the Red Army is the problem of education. Therefore, it is one of the important tasks of the Party to carry out the inner-party education in a planned way and correct the unplanned listening to its natural state in the past." In the resolution of the General Assembly, the issue of "inner-party education" was clearly put forward, and the education of cadres and party members in the Red Army was systematically expounded and arranged in terms of significance, materials and methods, which was very operable and the system was quite perfect. The contents and methods of carrying out political education, combining with the actual situation at that time, are rich in contents and various forms, such as: read the Party newspaper and political brief, organize and edit pamphlets of various kinds of education comrades, conduct political education training courses, and distribute books in an organized manner. To the illiterate party members, read and report to him, talk individually, carry out critical meetings, political seminars and so on, and also regard the "three sessions" as one of the important ways of inner-party education, namely, the Party's small group meetings, the Party branch general meetings, the Party branch committees and the joint meetings. The resolution of the Gutian Conference also highlighted the "proper allocation of party members to the actual work ", which would enrich the party members trained through full political education to all levels and posts of the Red Army fighting forces, which is also a implementation of the" party command gun ". The Party fully considered the political education of the young and middle-aged members of the Red Army and set up the organizational structure. To plan for the education of young party members, we plan to enlist the young workers and peasants in the mass approach and guide the youth work conference. The former committee and the committee each set up a five-member youth work committee, and the detachment committee and the sub-committee set up a youth committee. The political education of the backbone of the Central African Party members of the Red Army has not been relaxed, and regular education is carried out in the form of "meeting of activists" and "joint meeting ". Pay attention to strengthening the political training of the ordinary soldiers of the Red Army. The resolution calls for "a very artistic compilation of textbooks and training materials for the soldiers ", which refers to the compilation of the political analysis and the Red Army's tasks and plans, the reasons for the three discipline-building, how to do mass work, revolutionary stories, revolutionary songs, literacy campaigns and other 19 items" very artistically "into a form of political training material that the Red Army soldiers like and can easily understand in order to achieve practical results. The training methods of soldiers include political class, morning and evening roll call, collective speech, individual conversation, entertainment, improved treatment and so on. After the Gutian Conference, the principle of political building of the army was established. In january 1930, mao wrote the famous "spark, can start a prairie fire" in response to questions about how long the red flag had been played, and the suspicion and pessimism that appeared in the red army. This communication not only further answers the question of why China's red regime can exist and develop, but also finds the law that the Chinese revolution has been defeated by powerful enemies in the city and cannot achieve national victory with the city as the center, and puts forward the brilliant idea of "taking the village as the center" to carry out the "separation of workers and peasants'armed forces ". In order to fully educate all the members of the Red Fourth Army and all the cadres of the armed forces, Mao Zedong decided to publish and publish the correspondence in public form for the study of the whole army and to educate the whole army on politics, which played an important political safeguard role in the establishment of the Central Revolutionary Base Area and solved ideologically some of the "knots" that appeared in the Red Army at that time. Political education has also played a huge role in reforming the rebel forces. On December 24,1931, the famous Ningdu mutiny took place, and more than 10,000 people from the 26th Route Army of the Kuomintang held an uprising, which was then adapted to the Fifth Legion of the Red Army. The situation was complex and unstable. At a critical juncture, the red army commission ordered that the army should be reformed in the spirit of the red army, and mao zedong personally made arrangements to instruct xiao jinguang, who had been assigned to the red five corps as a political member, to establish party leadership and strengthen the political and ideological education of the rebel forces in an all-round way in accordance with the resolution of the gutian congress. Despite the difficulties and dangers of reforming the Red Five Corps, after more than two months of centralized reorganization, transformation and political and ideological education, the Red Five Corps grew into a new type of reliable people's army and became a red force that made great contributions to the revolution. In view of the comprehensive history of the Party, the fine tradition of political education and political study formed in the period of the Red Army, whether it was its initial period, or in the period of Ruijin, the long March, the Yan'an border area, the War of Resistance Against Japan and the War of Liberation, has been shining brilliantly in the history of the Party, which is one of the key factors for the people's army to change from weak to strong. ( Excerpt from the 24th issue of The Crowd,2017)