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考古成果越丰富历史就越清晰人们就越发自信
2020-01-08 00:27  www.sghunter.com

  中科院古人类研究所和西藏文物保护研究所组成的考古队在青藏高原的史前遗址梅龙达普洞穴进行考古。这里海拔约4600米,他们在距今至少4000年的两个独立洞穴中发现了岩画等丰富的古人类文化遗存。

Archaeological teams from the Institute of Ancient Humanity of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Institute for the Conservation of Tibetan Cultural Relics carried out archaeology at the prehistoric site of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Merondap Cave. At about 4,600 meters above sea level, they have discovered rich relics of ancient human culture such as rock paintings in two separate caves at least 4,000 years ago.

  中国社会科学院考古研究所的2019年度田野汇报会,比往年提前了一个月。两天的会议时间安排得满满当当,才勉强把30多项考古工作介绍了一遍。各考古大省的重要考古发现也陆续开始见诸报章,考古人迎来了又一年的盘点季。

The annual field briefing meeting of the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in 2019 was one month earlier than in previous years. The two-day meeting was so full that more than 30 archaeological works were barely introduced. Important archaeological discoveries in the major archaeological provinces have also begun to appear in the press, archaeologists ushered in another year's inventory season.

  进入12月,在第四届上海世界考古论坛上,从开始发掘起就备受关注的南昌西汉海昏侯墓考古和其它几项世界考古获得田野考古发现大奖。论坛期间的“中国考古学新发现与研究专场”最受国外考古学家的关注。

In December, at the 4th Shanghai World Archaeological Forum, the famous Archaeology Award for Archaeological Discovery in the West Han Dynasty in Nanchang and several other World Archaeological Sites, which have been highly regarded since the beginning of excavation. During the forum, the``New Discovery and Research Fair of Chinese Archaeology'' was the most concerned by foreign arches.

  10月,甲骨文发现120年和二里头遗址发现60年纪念活动相继举行,让大众再次走近这些在中华文明乃至人类文明发展史上具有划时代意义的重大发现。

In october, the 120-year oracle discovery and the 60-year commemoration of the erlitou site were held, bringing the public closer to these epoch-making discoveries in the history of chinese civilization and even human civilization.

  8月,以“新中国考古70年”为主题的第二届中国考古·郑州论坛举行,400余名专家、学者回顾了新中国考古在各个区域取得的丰硕成果。

In August, the second Chinese Archaeological Forum Zhengzhou Forum on the theme of``70 New China Archaeology'' was held, with more than 400 experts. The scholars reviewed the great achievements of new Chinese archaeology in various regions.

  在这些密集的会议背后,有数百项的考古发掘一年四季波澜不惊地在我们身边进行着。能够摘选出来的考古发现虽然只是冰山一角,却已经能让我们体悟到考古是怎样描绘着一个越来越清晰、真实的中国。

Behind these intensive meetings, hundreds of archaeological excavations are taking place around us throughout the year. Although only the tip of the iceberg, the archaeological discoveries that can be selected have shown us how the archaeology depicts an increasingly clear and real China.

  现代人的起源、农业起源、旧石器时代向新石器的过渡,都是重大的学术问题,旧石器时期的考古只会得到加强——

The origin of modern human beings, the origin of agriculture, the transition from Paleolithic to Neolithic are all significant academic issues, and the archaeology of Paleolithic period will only be strengthened -

  社科院考古所史前考古研究室的周振宇在河北泥河湾盆地的西白马营遗址已经连续工作了4年,最大的收获是发现了几处古人类的生活面,有两处明显用火遗迹,平面呈圆形,以红烧土为中心,分布有大量灰烬和炭粒。大型砾石砍砸器更是首次发现,在其附近还发现了被砍砸、肢解的动物骨骼。

Zhou Zhenyu, of the prehistoric archaeological research office of the Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Social Sciences, has been working on the site of the West Baimaying in the Nihewan Basin of Hebei Province for four years, and the biggest harvest has been the discovery of several aspects of the life of ancient human beings, with two distinct fire sites with circular planes and a large number of ash and charcoal grains in the center of the braised soil. Large gravel choppers are the first to be found, and animal bones have been found nearby.

  泥河湾不是单一的遗址,而是由数十处旧石器时代遗址构成的遗址群,涵盖了旧石器时代早、中、晚期,包括了200万年左右的马圈沟遗址、136万年前的小长梁遗址,100万年前的东谷坨遗址、10万年前的侯家窑遗址等,周振宇的西白马营为研究泥河湾盆地距今5万年至3万年人类的生存模式及适应性行为提供了丰富的资料。

Nihewan is not a single site, but a group of dozens of Paleolithic sites, covering the early, middle and late Paleolithic period, including the Maquangou site about 2 million years ago, the trabecular site 1.36 million years ago, the Donggu Tuo site, the Houjiayao site 100,000 years ago, and so on.

  同样在河北,还有一处兴隆遗址,位于张家口市康保县的坝上高原,是国家博物馆与河北省文物研究所进行的一项主动性考古。2018至2019年正式发掘,总面积1100平方米,时间跨度大,遗存堆积丰厚,动植物遗存丰富,为研究中国北方旧石器向新石器时代的过渡、农业起源及其环境变化等问题提供了重要线索。

Also in Hebei, there is a Xinglong site, located on the Bashang Plateau in Kangbao County, Zhangjiakou City, which is an active archaeology by the National Museum and the Institute of Cultural Relics of Hebei Province. The official excavation from 2018 to 2019, with a total area of 1100 square meters, a large time span, rich accumulation of remains and abundant animal and plant remains, provides an important clue for the study of the transition from Paleolithic to Neolithic in northern China, the origin of agriculture and its environmental changes.

  中科院古人类研究所和西藏文物保护研究所联合组成的旧石器时代考古团队在青藏高原发现了史前的洞穴遗址梅龙达普洞穴。在海拔约4600米处、距今至少4000年的两个独立洞穴遗址中发现了岩画等丰富的古人类文化遗存。之前他们在那曲地区发现的尼阿底遗址也在海拔4600米左右,书写了史前人类探索、挑战与征服高海拔极端环境的最高、最早的纪录。这是在西藏首次发现的具有确切地层和可靠年代数据的旧石器时代遗址,先民在这里活动的时间为4万到3万年前。

A Paleolithic archaeological team formed by the Institute of Ancient Humanity of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Institute for the Conservation of Tibetan Cultural Relics has discovered the prehistoric cave site Merondapo Cave on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Abundant remains of ancient human culture, such as rock paintings, have been discovered in two separate cave sites about 4,600 meters above sea level, at least 4,000 years ago. The site of the neadi site, which they had previously discovered in the naqu area, was also about 4,600 meters above sea level, writing the highest and earliest record of prehistoric humans exploring, challenging and conquering extreme environments at high altitudes. This is the first Paleolithic site with accurate stratigraphic and reliable dating data found in Tibet, where the ancestors lived between 40,000 and 30,000 years ago.

  2019年5月2日,国际顶级学术刊物Nature杂志在线发表中国科学院院士陈发虎带领的兰州大学环境考古团队最新成果,他们对上世纪80年代发现于青藏高原东北部的夏河县甘加盆地白石崖溶洞的一块人类下颌骨化石进行的科学研究显示,这块化石形成于至少距今16万年前,在遗传学上与阿尔泰山地区丹尼索瓦洞的丹尼索瓦人亲缘关系最近,可以确定其为青藏高原的丹尼索瓦人,之前丹尼索瓦人的人骨遗存只发现于丹尼索瓦洞。这项考古成果引起了国际考古界广泛的关注,多次入选考古发现榜单。

On May 2,2019, the top international academic journal Nature published online the latest results of the environmental archaeology team of the Lanzhou University led by academician Chen Fahu of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, who carried out a scientific study of a human jawbone fossil found in the 1980s in a cave of white stone cliffs in the Ganga Basin, northeast of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This archaeological achievement has attracted extensive attention of the international archaeological community, and has been included in the list of archaeological discoveries many times.

  中国史前区域文化的发展构成了日后中国古代文明的主要部分。因此新石器时代各区系史前文化的考古,为我们解释了“多元”文化因何渐成“一体”——

The development of Chinese prehistoric regional culture constituted a major part of later Chinese ancient civilization. Therefore, the archaeology of prehistoric cultures in the Neolithic regions explains why "pluralistic" cultures are becoming "one ”——

  在第四届上海世界考古论坛的中国专场中,浙江桥头遗址的新发现颇受关注。桥头遗址是上山文化遗址群众多遗址中的一个,缺少堆积废弃生活垃圾的灰坑,而以“器物坑”或者墓葬为主,“器物坑”内均堆积有大量保存较为完好的陶器,包括大口盆、平底盘、陶罐、陶壶、圈足盘等,尤其是出现了一定数量的彩陶,陶器上有太阳纹、短线组合纹等图案,具备了跨湖桥文化彩陶的基本因子,充分说明上山文化是跨湖桥文化的重要源头。这个遗址不仅提升了上山文化的遗产价值,也将中国东南地区距今9000年前后的文化面貌提升到一个新的高度。

In the 4th Shanghai World Archaeology Forum China special event, the new discovery of the Qiaotou site in Zhejiang has received considerable attention. The Qiaotou Site is one of the many sites in the Shangshan Cultural Site, lacking the ash pits for the accumulation of discarded domestic waste, while the \"utensil pits\" or tombs are dominated by a large number of well-preserved ceramics, including large pots, pans, pots, pots, circles and so on. This site not only enhances the heritage value of the Shangshan culture, but also elevates the cultural outlook of southeast China to a new height around 9000 years ago.

  2019年12月3日,河南郑州发布了“仰韶时代丝绸发现”的新闻。考古人员在郑州汪沟遗址清理的7个瓮棺中有5个发现了碳化纺织品,与此前在青台遗址瓮棺中出土的织物为同类丝织物,距今都已经5000多年。中国丝绸博物馆的研究人员通过对碳化纺织品的形貌、组织结构进行分析,发现两种碳化纺织品——平纹织物和绞经织物,明确了早在5000多年前中国就存在丝织。

On December 3,2019, Henan Zhengzhou released the news of \"Yangshao era silk discovery \". Five of the seven urn coffins cleared by archaeologists at the Wanggou site in Zhengzhou have found carbonized textiles, which are similar silk fabrics to those previously unearthed in the urn coffins at the Qingtai site, more than 5,000 years ago. By analyzing the morphology and structure of carbonized textiles, researchers at the China Silk Museum found that two types of carbonized textiles - plain and twisted fabrics - made it clear that silk weaving existed in China more than 5,000 years ago.

  郑州的青台遗址于20世纪20年代被发现,后被证明是一处仰韶晚期的大型聚落遗址。这里曾经发现了中国最早的丝绸,还出土了大量纺轮、骨锥、骨匕、骨针等原始纺织工具。为此郑州市文物考古研究院与中国丝绸博物馆在这里联合进行“青台遗址丝绸起源”考古。新的考古显示青台遗址拥有三重环壕,居住区已清理长方形房址43处,这些房屋有着多种形制和多种建造方法、建筑结构,一间房屋只残存的底部由土坯砌筑而成。

The Qingtai site in Zhengzhou was discovered in the 1920s and later proved to be a large settlement site in the late Yangshao period. China's earliest silk has been found here, but also unearthed a large number of spinning wheel, bone cone, bone dagger, bone needle and other original textile tools. Therefore, Zhengzhou Institute of Cultural Relics and the Chinese Silk Museum jointly carried out the \"Origin of Silk at Qingtai Site\" here. The new archaeology shows that the Qingtai site has a triple ring trench, and the residential area has been cleared of 43 rectangular housing sites, which have a variety of shapes and various construction methods, building structure, the bottom of a house is only left by adobe masonry.

  1921年安特生在河南渑池县仰韶村的考古最终生成了仰韶文化。1924年安特生来到甘肃洮河流域,陆续发现了马家窑文化、寺洼文化和齐家文化遗址。近百年过去了,考古人员依然在不断增加这些考古学文化的密度。考古研究所西北工作站就设在临洮,他们在寺洼山遗址的工作也进行了5年。2019年,考古工作者郭志委在一处台地共清理出马家窑文化房址1座、不同时期灰坑47个,还有36座墓葬。在仰韶文化晚期人群向西北的迁移,直接导致了马家窑文化的出现。马家窑文化在西北的新月地带发挥着重要的作用,期待这里会有更多的考古发现。

In 1921, the archaeology of yangshao village in mianchi county, henan, finally produced yangshao culture. In 1924, Antson came to the Tao River valley in Gansu Province and discovered the ruins of Majiayao culture, Siwa culture and Qijia culture one after another. Nearly 100 years later, archaeologists are still increasing the density of these archaeological cultures. The northwestern station of the Institute of Archaeology is based in Lintao, and their work at the Siwashan site has been going on for five years. In 2019, the archaeologist Guo Zhi committee cleared a total of one Majiayao cultural site,47 ash pits and 36 tombs at different times in a terrace. The migration of people to the northwest in the late Yangshao culture directly led to the emergence of Majiayao culture. Majiayao culture plays an important role in the new moon zone in the northwest, looking forward to more archaeological discoveries here.

  2019年10月,陕西省第一次完整公布了在石峁古城的皇城台出土的各类石雕70余件。这些石雕上有符号、人面、神面、动物、神兽等,雕刻技艺成熟,技法有阴刻、减地浅浮雕、高浮雕、圆雕等,引发了对于其来源与艺术风格的多种猜想。石峁遗址自2011年确认并开展考古发掘以来,每年都有令人震惊的发现。

In October 2019, Shaanxi province for the first time fully announced more than 70 stone carvings of all kinds unearthed in the imperial city platform of the ancient city of Shimao. These stone carvings have symbols, human face, god face, animal, fairy beast and so on, the carving skill is mature, the technique has the Yin engraving, reduces the ground shallow relief, the high relief, the round carving and so on, has caused many kinds of conjectures about its origin and the artistic style. The Shimao site has seen shocking discoveries every year since it was identified and archaeological excavations were carried out in 2011.

  借助考古,我们今天获得的对于夏商周的知识早已远远超越司马迁的时代,为我们研究夏商周的疆域范围、礼乐制度和对重要资源的控制提供了契机——

With the help of archaeology, the knowledge we have acquired today far exceeds the time of Si Maqian, and provides an opportunity for us to study the scope of Xia Shang and Zhou, the system of etiquette and music, and the control of important resources.

  辛店遗址,距离殷墟遗址核心区约10公里,从2016年开始发掘,目前的发掘总面积已经达到4000平方米,遗址范围广大,铸铜作坊、大型建筑遗迹、墓葬等分布密集,文化内涵十分丰富。遗址内出土了上万件陶范、模、铸铜工具及大量的青铜礼器、玉石器、陶器等,初步判断是一处“居、葬、生产合一”的超大型青铜铸造基地和大型聚落遗址。这一遗址的持续考古使我们不得不对“大邑商”过去的范畴重新进行思考,改变我们过去对于商晚期殷墟的布局、范围的认知。

Xindian site, about 10 kilometers from the core area of Yin ruins, since 2016, the total area of excavation has reached 4000 square meters, the site is vast, copper casting workshops, large building relics, tombs and other dense distribution, cultural connotations are very rich. Tens of thousands of pieces of pottery, moulds, tools for casting copper and a large number of bronze ceremonial objects, jade vessels and pottery were unearthed at the site. The continuing archaeology of this site makes us have to rethink the past category of \"Dayi Shang\" and change our understanding of the layout and scope of the late Shang Yin Hui.

  两周考古是近几年考古发现突破最多的领域。一系列考古发现使我们对周王朝在西北方和南方的疆域范围、分封制度、宗法礼乐制度和对重要资源的控制有了新的认识。

Two weeks of archaeology has been the most common area in recent years. A series of archaeological discoveries gave us a new understanding of the territory of the Zhou Dynasty in the northwest and south, the system of sealing, the patriarchal ritual and music system and the control of important resources.

  宁夏彭阳姚河塬遗址的考古持续进行,西周早期高等级墓葬区、铸铜与制陶作坊以及刻有文字的卜骨卜甲等都显示姚河塬遗址应为周王朝分封于西北边疆地区的某处重要采邑或诸侯国的都邑之所在。山西襄汾陶寺北墓地,持续考古显示其为一处延续时间约500年的大型高等级贵族墓地,包括墓葬1283座、车马坑3座,从两周之际延续到战国时期,前后历经春秋时期晋国“邦墓”和战国时期魏国贵族家族墓地两大阶段,为我们考察晋国乃至东周时期社会组织、文化面貌及其变迁提供了样本。还有河北行唐故郡墓地,为我们研究以鲜虞部族为代表的北狄族群的文化特征、迁徙过程、中山国历史提供了重要资料。

The archaeology of the site of the yang yang yao river plateau in ningxia continued. Early western zhou high-grade burial areas, pottery workshops and inscriptions of the site of the yao river tableland were all indicated that the site of the zhou dynasty should be the site of some important caiyi or the capital of the vassal state in the northwestern frontier. The north cemetery of xiangfen tao temple in shanxi is a large-scale high-grade aristocratic cemetery with a duration of about 500 years, including 1283 tombs and 3 chariot and horse pits, which lasted from two weeks to the warring States period. There is also the tomb of Hebei Xingtang County, which provides important information for us to study the cultural characteristics, migration process and history of the North Di ethnic group represented by the Shangyu clan.

  自1978年曾侯乙墓被发掘以来,湖北随州的考古成果就呈现井喷之势。枣树林墓地是今年曾国考古乃至两周考古的又一重大发现,它的重要性在于填补了春秋中期曾国考古的空白。之前,已经有西周早期的叶家山墓地,西周晚期至春秋早期的郭家庙、苏家垄墓地,还有春秋晚期至战国中期擂鼓墩墓地,加上枣树林墓地,曾国考古俨然已经形成一个比较完整的序列,这在周代诸侯国中是绝无仅有的。

Since the excavation of Zeng Hou Yi Tomb in 1978, the archaeological achievements of Suizhou in Hubei Province have shown the trend of blowout. Zao Shulin Cemetery is another important discovery of this year's Zengguo archaeology and even two weeks of archaeology, its importance is to fill the gap in the Middle Spring and Autumn period of Zengguo archaeology. Before that, the early Western Zhou Dynasty Yejiashan cemetery, the late Western Zhou Dynasty to the early Spring and Autumn period Guojiamiao, Sujialong cemetery, as well as the late Spring and Autumn period to the warring States in the middle period of the drum drum tomb, coupled with the jujube grove cemetery, Zengguo archaeology has formed a relatively complete sequence, which is unique in the Zhou Dynasty princes.

  国家文物局发布“考古中国”最新重要成果,在2019年成为常态。这也成为学术界及大众第一时间了解中国考古最新进展的权威平台——

The National Bureau of Cultural Heritage released the latest important results of Archaeological China, becoming the norm in 2019. This has also become the first authoritative platform for academia and the public to learn the latest progress of Chinese archaeology -

  2019年5月6号,国家文物局公布了4项重要考古成果,其中荆州胡家草场墓地和荆州龙会河墓地北岸墓地出土的简牍,为研究西周至汉代,特别是楚国的历史大事、政治军事思想等,提供了新的实物资料,具有重要学术价值。胡家草场墓地共清理古墓葬18座,12号墓出土的西汉简牍有4546枚,为历年来我国单座墓葬出土简牍数量之最。这批简牍分为竹简、木简、木牍3种,内容包括历谱、编年记、律令、经方、遣册、日书等,种类丰富,是我国简牍考古上的一项重要成果。

On May 6,2019, the State Administration of Cultural Relics announced four important archaeological achievements, among which, the bamboo slips unearthed from the cemetery of Jingzhou Hujiachang and the cemetery of the north bank of Jingzhou Longhui River, provided new material in kind and had important academic value for studying the historical events and political and military thoughts of the State of Chu from the Western Zhou Dynasty to the Han Dynasty. A total of 18 ancient tombs have been cleared in the graveyard of the Hujia pasture, with 4,546 bamboo slips from the Western Han Dynasty unearthed from Tomb No.12, the largest number of single tombs unearthed in China over the years. This batch of bamboo slips is divided into bamboo slips, wooden slips and wooden slips. The contents include calendar, chronology, decree, classics, dispatch books and Japanese slips.

  最近一次国家文物局“考古中国”重点成果发布聚焦了甘肃天祝岔山村墓葬、青海都兰热水墓群、青海乌兰泉沟一号壁画墓和新疆尉犁克亚克库都克烽燧遗址4项重要发现。

The most recent release of the key achievements of the \"archaeological china\" of the state cultural relics bureau focused on four important discoveries: the tomb of tianzhu chashan village in gansu, the tomb of qinghai dulan hot water group, the tomb of wall painting no.1 in qinghai ulaanquangou and the site of xinjiang weili kyakkuduk fengsui.

  社科院考古所研究员仝涛在青海乌兰泉沟一号墓的考古可用曲折来形容。这座青藏高原首次发现的吐蕃时期壁画墓被盗多次,抢救性发掘极为艰苦。带墓道的长方形砖木混合结构多室墓深达十多米。光是墓上的积石就清理了一个多月。墓室由前室、后室和两个侧室组成。前室和后室均绘壁画,内容有武士牵马迎宾、宴饮舞乐、狩猎放牧等内容。墓顶绘有各类珍禽异兽、祥龙飞鹤、日月星辰等图像。这些壁画现在已完整揭取。在对墓室整体搬迁时,在后室西侧木椁外墓底坑壁上发现一处封藏的暗格,内置一长方形木箱,箱内端放一件珍珠冕旒龙凤狮纹鎏金王冠和一件镶嵌绿松石四曲鋬指金杯。

Tong Tao, a researcher at the Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Social Sciences, can be described by twists and turns in the archaeology of Tomb No.1 in Wulanquangou, Qinghai. The Tibetan Plateau was first found in the Tubo period mural tomb was stolen many times, rescue excavation is extremely difficult. The rectangular brick-wood mixed structure with the tomb path is more than ten meters deep. The stones on the tomb alone were cleared for more than a month. The tomb chamber consists of a front chamber, a rear chamber and two side chambers. The front and back rooms are painted murals, the content of Samurai lead horse Yingbin, banquet, dance, hunting and grazing content. Tomb top painted all kinds of rare birds and animals, Xianglong flying crane, sun, moon and stars and other images. These murals are now fully uncovered. In the overall relocation of the tomb, in the west side of the back of the outer coffin on the bottom of the tomb found a sealed dark box, built-in a rectangular wooden box, the end of the box with a pearl royal diadem dragon and lion gilded crown and a turquoise four curved urn gold cup.

  设置密封的暗格在中国乃至全世界的考古史上,都没有发现过类似的先例。保存完好的鎏金王冠和镶嵌绿松石金杯,推测墓主是唐吐蕃王室成员,为了解唐吐蕃在该地行政与军事建制情况提供了线索。

No similar precedent has been found in the history of archaeology in China or the world. With its well-preserved gilded crown and turquoise-gold cup, the tomb's owner is supposed to be a member of the Tang Tubo royal family, providing clues about the administrative and military establishment of the Tang Tubo in the area.