Archaeological teams from the Institute of Ancient Humanity of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Institute for the Conservation of Tibetan Cultural Relics carried out archaeology at the prehistoric site of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Merondap Cave. At about 4,600 meters above sea level, they have discovered rich relics of ancient human culture such as rock paintings in two separate caves at least 4,000 years ago.
The annual field briefing meeting of the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in 2019 was one month earlier than in previous years. The two-day meeting was so full that more than 30 archaeological works were barely introduced. Important archaeological discoveries in the major archaeological provinces have also begun to appear in the press, archaeologists ushered in another year's inventory season.
In December, at the 4th Shanghai World Archaeological Forum, the famous Archaeology Award for Archaeological Discovery in the West Han Dynasty in Nanchang and several other World Archaeological Sites, which have been highly regarded since the beginning of excavation. During the forum, the``New Discovery and Research Fair of Chinese Archaeology'' was the most concerned by foreign arches.
In october, the 120-year oracle discovery and the 60-year commemoration of the erlitou site were held, bringing the public closer to these epoch-making discoveries in the history of chinese civilization and even human civilization.
In August, the second Chinese Archaeological Forum Zhengzhou Forum on the theme of``70 New China Archaeology'' was held, with more than 400 experts. The scholars reviewed the great achievements of new Chinese archaeology in various regions.
Behind these intensive meetings, hundreds of archaeological excavations are taking place around us throughout the year. Although only the tip of the iceberg, the archaeological discoveries that can be selected have shown us how the archaeology depicts an increasingly clear and real China.
The origin of modern human beings, the origin of agriculture, the transition from Paleolithic to Neolithic are all significant academic issues, and the archaeology of Paleolithic period will only be strengthened -
Zhou Zhenyu, of the prehistoric archaeological research office of the Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Social Sciences, has been working on the site of the West Baimaying in the Nihewan Basin of Hebei Province for four years, and the biggest harvest has been the discovery of several aspects of the life of ancient human beings, with two distinct fire sites with circular planes and a large number of ash and charcoal grains in the center of the braised soil. Large gravel choppers are the first to be found, and animal bones have been found nearby.
Nihewan is not a single site, but a group of dozens of Paleolithic sites, covering the early, middle and late Paleolithic period, including the Maquangou site about 2 million years ago, the trabecular site 1.36 million years ago, the Donggu Tuo site, the Houjiayao site 100,000 years ago, and so on.
Also in Hebei, there is a Xinglong site, located on the Bashang Plateau in Kangbao County, Zhangjiakou City, which is an active archaeology by the National Museum and the Institute of Cultural Relics of Hebei Province. The official excavation from 2018 to 2019, with a total area of 1100 square meters, a large time span, rich accumulation of remains and abundant animal and plant remains, provides an important clue for the study of the transition from Paleolithic to Neolithic in northern China, the origin of agriculture and its environmental changes.
A Paleolithic archaeological team formed by the Institute of Ancient Humanity of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Institute for the Conservation of Tibetan Cultural Relics has discovered the prehistoric cave site Merondapo Cave on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Abundant remains of ancient human culture, such as rock paintings, have been discovered in two separate cave sites about 4,600 meters above sea level, at least 4,000 years ago. The site of the neadi site, which they had previously discovered in the naqu area, was also about 4,600 meters above sea level, writing the highest and earliest record of prehistoric humans exploring, challenging and conquering extreme environments at high altitudes. This is the first Paleolithic site with accurate stratigraphic and reliable dating data found in Tibet, where the ancestors lived between 40,000 and 30,000 years ago.
On May 2,2019, the top international academic journal Nature published online the latest results of the environmental archaeology team of the Lanzhou University led by academician Chen Fahu of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, who carried out a scientific study of a human jawbone fossil found in the 1980s in a cave of white stone cliffs in the Ganga Basin, northeast of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This archaeological achievement has attracted extensive attention of the international archaeological community, and has been included in the list of archaeological discoveries many times.
The development of Chinese prehistoric regional culture constituted a major part of later Chinese ancient civilization. Therefore, the archaeology of prehistoric cultures in the Neolithic regions explains why "pluralistic" cultures are becoming "one ”——
In the 4th Shanghai World Archaeology Forum China special event, the new discovery of the Qiaotou site in Zhejiang has received considerable attention. The Qiaotou Site is one of the many sites in the Shangshan Cultural Site, lacking the ash pits for the accumulation of discarded domestic waste, while the \"utensil pits\" or tombs are dominated by a large number of well-preserved ceramics, including large pots, pans, pots, pots, circles and so on. This site not only enhances the heritage value of the Shangshan culture, but also elevates the cultural outlook of southeast China to a new height around 9000 years ago.
On December 3,2019, Henan Zhengzhou released the news of \"Yangshao era silk discovery \". Five of the seven urn coffins cleared by archaeologists at the Wanggou site in Zhengzhou have found carbonized textiles, which are similar silk fabrics to those previously unearthed in the urn coffins at the Qingtai site, more than 5,000 years ago. By analyzing the morphology and structure of carbonized textiles, researchers at the China Silk Museum found that two types of carbonized textiles - plain and twisted fabrics - made it clear that silk weaving existed in China more than 5,000 years ago.
The Qingtai site in Zhengzhou was discovered in the 1920s and later proved to be a large settlement site in the late Yangshao period. China's earliest silk has been found here, but also unearthed a large number of spinning wheel, bone cone, bone dagger, bone needle and other original textile tools. Therefore, Zhengzhou Institute of Cultural Relics and the Chinese Silk Museum jointly carried out the \"Origin of Silk at Qingtai Site\" here. The new archaeology shows that the Qingtai site has a triple ring trench, and the residential area has been cleared of 43 rectangular housing sites, which have a variety of shapes and various construction methods, building structure, the bottom of a house is only left by adobe masonry.
In 1921, the archaeology of yangshao village in mianchi county, henan, finally produced yangshao culture. In 1924, Antson came to the Tao River valley in Gansu Province and discovered the ruins of Majiayao culture, Siwa culture and Qijia culture one after another. Nearly 100 years later, archaeologists are still increasing the density of these archaeological cultures. The northwestern station of the Institute of Archaeology is based in Lintao, and their work at the Siwashan site has been going on for five years. In 2019, the archaeologist Guo Zhi committee cleared a total of one Majiayao cultural site,47 ash pits and 36 tombs at different times in a terrace. The migration of people to the northwest in the late Yangshao culture directly led to the emergence of Majiayao culture. Majiayao culture plays an important role in the new moon zone in the northwest, looking forward to more archaeological discoveries here.
In October 2019, Shaanxi province for the first time fully announced more than 70 stone carvings of all kinds unearthed in the imperial city platform of the ancient city of Shimao. These stone carvings have symbols, human face, god face, animal, fairy beast and so on, the carving skill is mature, the technique has the Yin engraving, reduces the ground shallow relief, the high relief, the round carving and so on, has caused many kinds of conjectures about its origin and the artistic style. The Shimao site has seen shocking discoveries every year since it was identified and archaeological excavations were carried out in 2011.
With the help of archaeology, the knowledge we have acquired today far exceeds the time of Si Maqian, and provides an opportunity for us to study the scope of Xia Shang and Zhou, the system of etiquette and music, and the control of important resources.
Xindian site, about 10 kilometers from the core area of Yin ruins, since 2016, the total area of excavation has reached 4000 square meters, the site is vast, copper casting workshops, large building relics, tombs and other dense distribution, cultural connotations are very rich. Tens of thousands of pieces of pottery, moulds, tools for casting copper and a large number of bronze ceremonial objects, jade vessels and pottery were unearthed at the site. The continuing archaeology of this site makes us have to rethink the past category of \"Dayi Shang\" and change our understanding of the layout and scope of the late Shang Yin Hui.
Two weeks of archaeology has been the most common area in recent years. A series of archaeological discoveries gave us a new understanding of the territory of the Zhou Dynasty in the northwest and south, the system of sealing, the patriarchal ritual and music system and the control of important resources.
The archaeology of the site of the yang yang yao river plateau in ningxia continued. Early western zhou high-grade burial areas, pottery workshops and inscriptions of the site of the yao river tableland were all indicated that the site of the zhou dynasty should be the site of some important caiyi or the capital of the vassal state in the northwestern frontier. The north cemetery of xiangfen tao temple in shanxi is a large-scale high-grade aristocratic cemetery with a duration of about 500 years, including 1283 tombs and 3 chariot and horse pits, which lasted from two weeks to the warring States period. There is also the tomb of Hebei Xingtang County, which provides important information for us to study the cultural characteristics, migration process and history of the North Di ethnic group represented by the Shangyu clan.
Since the excavation of Zeng Hou Yi Tomb in 1978, the archaeological achievements of Suizhou in Hubei Province have shown the trend of blowout. Zao Shulin Cemetery is another important discovery of this year's Zengguo archaeology and even two weeks of archaeology, its importance is to fill the gap in the Middle Spring and Autumn period of Zengguo archaeology. Before that, the early Western Zhou Dynasty Yejiashan cemetery, the late Western Zhou Dynasty to the early Spring and Autumn period Guojiamiao, Sujialong cemetery, as well as the late Spring and Autumn period to the warring States in the middle period of the drum drum tomb, coupled with the jujube grove cemetery, Zengguo archaeology has formed a relatively complete sequence, which is unique in the Zhou Dynasty princes.
The National Bureau of Cultural Heritage released the latest important results of Archaeological China, becoming the norm in 2019. This has also become the first authoritative platform for academia and the public to learn the latest progress of Chinese archaeology -
On May 6,2019, the State Administration of Cultural Relics announced four important archaeological achievements, among which, the bamboo slips unearthed from the cemetery of Jingzhou Hujiachang and the cemetery of the north bank of Jingzhou Longhui River, provided new material in kind and had important academic value for studying the historical events and political and military thoughts of the State of Chu from the Western Zhou Dynasty to the Han Dynasty. A total of 18 ancient tombs have been cleared in the graveyard of the Hujia pasture, with 4,546 bamboo slips from the Western Han Dynasty unearthed from Tomb No.12, the largest number of single tombs unearthed in China over the years. This batch of bamboo slips is divided into bamboo slips, wooden slips and wooden slips. The contents include calendar, chronology, decree, classics, dispatch books and Japanese slips.
The most recent release of the key achievements of the \"archaeological china\" of the state cultural relics bureau focused on four important discoveries: the tomb of tianzhu chashan village in gansu, the tomb of qinghai dulan hot water group, the tomb of wall painting no.1 in qinghai ulaanquangou and the site of xinjiang weili kyakkuduk fengsui.
Tong Tao, a researcher at the Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Social Sciences, can be described by twists and turns in the archaeology of Tomb No.1 in Wulanquangou, Qinghai. The Tibetan Plateau was first found in the Tubo period mural tomb was stolen many times, rescue excavation is extremely difficult. The rectangular brick-wood mixed structure with the tomb path is more than ten meters deep. The stones on the tomb alone were cleared for more than a month. The tomb chamber consists of a front chamber, a rear chamber and two side chambers. The front and back rooms are painted murals, the content of Samurai lead horse Yingbin, banquet, dance, hunting and grazing content. Tomb top painted all kinds of rare birds and animals, Xianglong flying crane, sun, moon and stars and other images. These murals are now fully uncovered. In the overall relocation of the tomb, in the west side of the back of the outer coffin on the bottom of the tomb found a sealed dark box, built-in a rectangular wooden box, the end of the box with a pearl royal diadem dragon and lion gilded crown and a turquoise four curved urn gold cup.
No similar precedent has been found in the history of archaeology in China or the world. With its well-preserved gilded crown and turquoise-gold cup, the tomb's owner is supposed to be a member of the Tang Tubo royal family, providing clues about the administrative and military establishment of the Tang Tubo in the area.